Neutering

Neutering refers to the sterilization of animals, usually by removal of the male's testicles or the female's ovaries and uterus, in order to eliminate the ability to procreate and reduce sex drive. Because of the overpopulation of dogs in some countries, many animal control agencies, such as the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA), advise that dogs not intended for further breeding should be neutered, so that they do not have undesired puppies that may have to later be euthanized.[159] According to the Humane Society of the United States, 34 million dogs and cats are put down each year in the United States and many more are confined to cages in shelters because there are many more animals than there are homes. Spaying or castrating dogs helps keep overpopulation down.[160] Local humane societies, SPCAs, and other animal protection organizations urge people to neuter their pets and to adopt animals from shelters instead of purchasing them. Neutering reduces problems caused by hypersexuality, especially in male dogs.[161] Spayed female dogs are less likely to develop some forms of cancer, affecting mammary glands, ovaries, and other reproductive organs.[162] However, neutering increases the risk of urinary incontinence in female dogs,[163] and prostate cancer in males,[164] as well as osteosarcoma, hemangiosarcoma, cruciate ligament rupture, obesity, and diabetes mellitus in either gender. Neutering, from the Latin neuter (of neither sex[1]), is the removal of an animal's reproductive organ, either all of it or a considerably large part. The term is often used in reference to males whereas spaying is often reserved for females. Colloquially, both terms are often referred to as fixing.[citation needed] While technically called castration for males, in male horses, the process is referred to as gelding. Neutering is the most common sterilizing method in animals. In the United States, most humane societies, animal shelters and rescue groups urge pet owners to have their pets spayed or neutered to prevent the births of unwanted litters, contributing to the overpopulation of unwanted animals in the rescue system. Libido (/lbi?do?/) refers to a person's sexual drive or desire for

sexual activity. The desire for sex is an aspect of a person's sexuality, but varies enormously from one person to another, and it also varies depending on circumstances at a particular time. Sex drive has usually biological, psychological, and social components. Biologically, levels of hormones such as testosterone are believed to affect sex drive; social factors, such as work and family, also have an impact; as do internal psychological factors, like personality and stress. Sex drive may be affected by medical conditions, medications, lifestyle and relationship issues. A person who has extremely frequent or a suddenly increased sex drive may be experiencing hypersexuality, but there is no measure of what is a healthy level for sex. Asexual people may lack any sexual desires. A person may have a desire for sex but not have the opportunity to act on that desire, or may on personal, moral or religious reasons refrain from acting on the urge. Psychologically, a person's urge can be repressed or sublimated. On the other hand, a person can engage in sexual activity without an actual desire for it. Males reach the peak of their sex drive in their teens, while females reach it in their thirties.[1][2][3] There are multiple things which affect human sex drive like stress, illness, pregnancy etc.[4] A sex drive can be viewed in terms of a general desire for sex or in terms of desire for sex with a particular person. A general desire for sex is an important motivator for the formation and maintenance of intimate relationships in both men and women, and a lack or loss of sexual desire can have an adverse impact on a relationship. A general change in desire for sex by either partner in a relationship for any reason if sustained and unresolved may result in a lack or loss of sexual desire for the other partner, which may cause problems in the relationship. Infidelity may be an indication of a continuing general desire for sex, though not with the primary partner or because personal sexual needs cannot be satisfied adequately by that partner. Problems can arise from the loss of sexual desire in general or for the partner or a lack of connection with the partner, or poor communication of sexual needs and preferences.[5]